Parashat Bereishit

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Parashat Bereishit is the first Parsha in the Book of Bereishit and the first Parsha of the Torah.


[edit] Creation

In the beginning of Hashem creation[1] of Heaven and Earth the world was astonishingly[2] empty and desolate.[2] Darkness was on the face of the water upon deep earth.[2] The spirit of Hashem and His Throne of Glory[2] hovered over the face of the water, suspended in the air,[2] by the breath of His mouth and His word,[2] just like a dove hovering over its nest.[2] The sprit of Hashem alludes to the Sprit of Moshiach.[3]

The world was created in merit of the Jews accepting[4] the Torah,[1] in merit of Nation of Yisroel[1] and for the Truth.[5] It was finished on Rosh Hashanah.[4] and was created with Truth.[4] Originally Hashem intended to create the World with the attribute of Justice since the highest levels of nullification to Hashem are attainable through harsh judgments, which would allow people to reach the ultimate goodness of great comprehension of Hashem. However He saw it could not last as most people would fail to achieve this nullification.[6] Instead he proceeded to create it with the attribute of Mercy and joined it with the attribute of Justice.[1]

Instead of starting the Torah by the instruction of Kidush Hachodesh,[7] the first publicly given commandment, the Torah starts from Creation to reveal the power of Hashem and that all belongs to Him and therefore the Jews had right to capture the Land of Canaan at His command.[1] It is forbidden to expound on the mystical teachings of Creation and the Chariot, to those that are not worthy.[8]

[edit] First Day

Hashem creates the sky, land and light. He said there should be light and there was light. Hashem saw the light that it was good and should not be mixed together with the darkness.[9] This light was an aspect of the Torah, the 613 commandments and the covnent of the Bris.[10] He then separates the light and darkness, giving boundaries to each,[9] calling the light day and the darkness night. Hashem also saw that it was not befitting for the wicked to access the original light was not so He separated it for the righteous to use in the future.[9] It was evening and then morning and the first day was over. During the first day only Hashem existed in the world, for the angels were not created until the second day.[11]

The sun and moon were also created on the first day, but only suspended in the sky on the 4th day.[12] Likewise all the creations of heaven and earth were created on the first day, but were only fixed in their proper places later on.[12]

[edit] Second Day

Hashem said there should be a firmament in the middle[13] of the water, separating the Upper and Lower Waters.[13] The heavens were created on the first day, but were is a state of moisture and the pillars of the heavens trembled the entire day.[13] On they second day they solidified from the rebuke of Hashem, when He said the above command, like a person who stands in awe from the rebuke of one who threatens him.[13]

Hashem made the firmament, establishing it on its base[14] and it separated between the water that were below and above it. Just like there is space between the oceans and the sky so to there is space between the sky and the Upper Waters,[13] all layers being suspended in place in the air[14] by the word of the King Hashem.[13]

Hashem named the firmament 'Heaven' (שמים) which is a combination of all the following words

  • שא מים - Carry water
  • שם מים - There is water there
  • אש ומים - Fire and water, since the Hashem mingled them together, creating the heavens from them.[15]

Also the Angels were created on the second day.[11] It was evening and then morning and the second day was over. Since the functionality of the Waters were not completed until the third day, it does not say 'It was good' since something that is incomplete is not fully good.[14]

[edit] Third Day

At this point the lower waters were spread out over the surface of the entire earth.[16] Hashem said the lower waters should gather into one pool and the dry land should appear. They were gathered into the Mediterranean ocean, the largest of all seas.[16]

Hashem named the dry area 'land' and the water 'oceans' and He saw that it was good. Although all the water is connected and is a single large sea, the flavor of a fish that comes up from the sea in Acco is different then a fish from Spain, therefore the body of water was named 'Oceans' in plural form.[17]

Hashem said, the earth should sprout a layer vegetation,[18] seed yielding herbs[18] and fruit trees producing fruit according to its kind in which its seeds[18] are found, so it can be replanted elsewhere[18] on the earth and trees will grow from it.[18]

It was so, the earth gave forth vegetation, seed yielding herbs according to its species, and trees producing fruit with seeds according to its species, and Hashem saw that it was good. Although the herbs did not receive a direct command to produce according to their set species, they heard the trees being commanded to do so and take an example for themselves.[19] It was evening and then morning, a third day.

Hashem had commanded that the taste of each tree should be like its fruit. However the earth did not do so and only produced taste in the actual fruits. Therefore when when Adam was cursed for his sin, the earth was also reimbursed for its sin and cursed.[18] Each blade of grass has a Mazel above.[20]

Hashem then creates the potential for grasses and fruit trees, although they did not sprout until the sixth day.

Since all the water related work was completed on the third day, 'It was Good' is mentioned twice once for the second day where it was omitted since the work was incomplete and once for the third day.[14]

[edit] Fourth Day

Hashem said there should be lights in the firmament of the heavens. Although the sun and moon were created on the first day, it was only on the 4th day that they were suspended in the sky.[12] They will separate between the day and between the night. They were server as signs for when the sun or moon are eclipsed, it is an unfavorable omen for the world.[12] They are to be use to appoint seasons, since the months and holidays are set based on the rebirth of the new moon.[12] They set the timeframe of the days, since the sun servers for half a day and the moon for the other half, completing a full day cycle.[12] They also set the year cycle, which lasts 356 days during which they complete their revolution through the twelve constellations, which serve them. In addition,[21] they will serve as lights in the firmament of the heavens to shine light upon the earth. It was so. Really only the sun was created for light, while the moon was created only to prevent worship of the sun had it been created alone.[22]

Hashem made the two great lights, the sun and the moon. Originally both were the same size[23] but when the moon complained that the sun had equal power and it is impossible for two kings to use the same crown, it was punished and made smaller.[23] Following this sun - the great light ruled during the day, while the moon - the lesser light ruled at night. Because Hashem diminished the moon, He created for it hosts of stars, to appease it.[23] Hashem placed them in the firmament of the heavens to shine light upon the earth, to rule over the day and night and to separate between the light and darkness. Hashem saw that it was good. It was evening and then morning, a fourth day.

The fourth day of the week is cursed day when children become ill with croup and therefore the men of the Mamad would fast on the 4th day so that children should not become ill with croup.[12]

[edit] Fifth Day

Hashem said the waters should swarm a swarming of living creatures, containing life in them.[24] This included all living things that are not much higher than the earth.[24] It included winged creatures such as flies, insects such as ants, beetles, and worms and larger creatures such as weasels, mice and lizards.[24] It also included all the fish.[24] Additionally let birds fly over the earth, across the firmament of the heavens. More kosher birds were created then non-kosher ones.[25]

Hashem created the great sea reptiles, which included the great fish in the sea, the Leviyatan and its mate. Both male and female were created but Hashem killed the female, and salted her away for the righteous in the future, because if they would have children, the world could not exist because of them.[26]

Also every living creature containing life in them[26] that crawls, with which the waters swarmed, according to their species. As well as every winged bird, according to its species. Hashem saw that it was good.

Because these creatures are hunted by humans and their numbers are decreased,[27] Hashem blessed them to be fruitful[27] and each should mass[27] multiply. They should fill the waters of the seas, and let the birds multiply upon the earth. It was evening, then morning, a fifth day.

[edit] Sixth Day

Hashem said the earth should bring forth what was already previously created on the first day;[28] living creatures, containing life in them,[28] according to their species, cattle, creeping things which are low and crawl upon the earth appearing to drag since their walking motions are not noticeable[28] and the beasts of the earth according to their species. It was so.

Hashem made the beasts of the earth, cattle, creeping things of the ground all in their complete form and stature,[29] according to their species. Hashem saw that it was good.

Although the land animals are also hunted by humans and their numbers are decreased, Hashem did not bless them to multiply like he did to the birds and fish because He did not want to include the serpent in the blessings since was destined to be cursed.[27]

[edit] Creation of Adam

Hashem counseled with the angels[30] saying they should make man in their image form,[30] after their likeness, giving them ability to understand and to discern.[30] They shall rule over the fish of the sea, birds of the heaven, animals, entire earth and all creepy things that creep upon the earth. This is only if a man merits, if he does not, then he becomes subservient to them, and the beast rules over him.[30]

We see the humility of Hashem who knew the angels would be jealous of man, so he therefore first consulted with them.[30] Additionally it is the policy of Hashem to consult them when he judges kings.[30] Here He also did saying there are heavenly beings in His likeness and if no earthly beings were created in His likeness, there will be envy in the Creation.[30] Although the angels were consulted, only Hashem created man, unlike the heretics that misquote the verse since 'let us create' is written in plural.[30]

Hashem created man in His image using His hands, unlike everything else that was created with His sayings.[31] He was created in the image of Hashem, with a mold like a coin.[31] The image that was prepared for Adam was the image of the likeness of his Creator,[31] Both male and female humans were created by Hashem on the sixth day.[31] Originally they were created together with two faces on a single body, but later Hashem divided them by taking one of Adom's ribs.[31] Man was created from earth and is composed of dust, blood and bile.[32] Males are more in realm of blessing, while females are more in the realm of curse.[33]

Hahsem blessed them, telling them to be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it, and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over all the beasts that tread upon the earth. Only males have the commandment to multiply[34] and should subdue the females from public socialization.[34] If they merit they will subdue even the fish but if not they will be subdued even by nations like the Plishtim.[35]

Hashem saw all that He had made, and behold it was very good. It was evening and morning, the sixth day.

Hashem told Adom he is being given every seed bearing herb on the surface of the entire earth and every tree that has seed bearing fruit as his for food. However Adom and his wife were not permitted to kill any creatures and eat their meat.[36] Similarly,[36] all the beasts of the earth, birds of the heavens and everything that moves upon the earth, in which there is a living spirit, also have the right to eat green herbs. It was so. It was only during the time of Noach that humans were permitted to eat animals.[36]

[edit] Creation of Gan Eden

Hashem creates a garden on the Eastern side of Eden. In the garden are many trees including the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge. There is a river that waters the garden which afterwords separates to four smaller rivers; Pishon, Gichon, Chidekel and Pras. Hashem appoints Adam as the caretaker and guardian of the garden and permits him to eat from all the trees aside from the Tree of Knowledge.

[edit] Creation of Chava

Hashem declares that Adam needs a helper. After Adam names all the animals and can not find a suitable helper, Hashem places him in a deep sleep. He then takes one of his ribs and forms a woman out of it. Adam names her a 'wife'. The two walk undressed with no embarrassment.

[edit] Shabbos

Hashem finishes creation right before Shabbos and then takes a rest and blesses it making it holy.

Creation was sealed with the Shem Havaya[37]

[edit] Finalizing Creation

Now that the heaven and earth had been created, the previous state of Tohu Vavohu chaos was deemed irrelevant[38]

[edit] Sin of Adam

[edit] Seduction of Snake

The snake seduces Chava into eating from the Tree of Knowledge claiming it will give her G-dly powers. After touching the tree and remaining unharmed Chava eats from it and then feeds some to her husband. Upon eating the forbidden fruit they gain knowledge and realize they are undressed. Out of embarrassment they create garments and then hide from Hashem among the trees of the garden. Hashem calls out to Adam who then admits he was hiding since he was undressed. Hashem asks Adam if he ate from the Tree of Knowledge. Adam confesses that he did but blames it on Chava who in-turn blames it on the snake.

The Tree of Knowledge had an element[39] of an Etrog Tree.[33]

[edit] Punishments

Hashem punishes the snake with ten curses[40] including having crawl on his stomach, eat dust and forever be hated by humans. Additionally the hands and legs he previously had were cut off from him.[40] Chava is punished with ten curses[40] including women having to suffer the pain of child raising, pain of pregnancy, pain of birth and always require attention from her husband. Adam is punished with ten curses[40] including having the ground cursed because of him, from now on it will sprout thorns in place of crops and men will eat bread only through the sweat of their brow. The ground is punished with nine curses since it had the ability to protest and prevent Adom from eating for the tree of death.[40] It was also paid back at this time for producing taste only in its fruits and not in the Tree itself, as Hashem had commanded.[18]

[edit] Naming of Chava

Adam names his wife Chava since she is the mother of all those alive (Chi).

[edit] Skin Garments

Hashem dresses Adam and Chava in skin garments.

[edit] Expulsion

Adam is expelled from the garden to prevent him from eating from the Tree of Life. Hashem places damaging angles and the blade of the rotating sward at the gate of the garden to prevent Adam from reentering it.

[edit] Kayin & Hevel

[edit] Birth

Kayin and Hevel are born to Adam and Chava. Hevel becomes a shepherd while Hayin works the land.

[edit] Sacrifices

Kayin and Hevel both offer sacrifices to Hashem. Hevel's sacrifice is accepted while Hayin's is rejected. Upon seeing this, Kayin's face drops. Hashem teaches Kayin about the Evil Urge and how it can be overcome.

[edit] Murder

Kayin murders Hevel. Hashem punishes the ground for swalowing Hevel's blood. Kayin is punished to from now on wander the earth. Kayin pleads for mercy and Hashem places a letter mark on his forehead to save him from being attacked by wild beasts for seven generations.

[edit] Generations of Kayin

  1. Kayin gives births Chanoch and builds a city for him naming it after his son.
  2. Chanoch births Eirad.
  3. Eirad births Machviel
  4. Machviel births Mesushelach
  5. Mesushelach births Lemech
  6. Lemech births Yuval and Yoval from his wife Ada and Tuval Kayin and Nama from his wife Tzila.

[edit] Death of Kayin

Lemech accidentally kills his ancestor Kayin and he is hunting blindly guided by his son Tuval Kayin. He then kills Tuval Kayin. Lemech's two wives separate from him and he wounder why he received and immediately punishment while Kayin's was delayed for seven generations.

[edit] Adam's Descendants

There are ten generations form Adam until Noach

  1. Adam lives for 930 years
  2. Shes lives for 912 years
  3. Enosh lives for 905 years
  4. Kanun lives for 910 years
  5. Mehalalel lives for 895 years
  6. Yered lives for 962 years
  7. Chanoch lives for 365 years and is then taken by Hashem
  8. Mesushelach lives for 969 years
  9. Lemech lives for 777 years
  10. Noach has three sons Shem, Cham and Yafes

[edit] Perversion

After the world is perverted by the fallen angles, Hashem declares that he will give mankind an opportunity of 120 years to repent. These giants attempt to rebel against Hashem with their strength and they are called 'Nifilim'.

[edit] Decree of the Flood

Hashem decides to destroy the now corrupted world, giving a 120 year extension to the decree. This decree took place before the birth of Yefes.[41] Noach finds favor in Hashem's eyes.

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b c d e Rashi Berashis 1:1
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Rashi Berashis 1:2
  3. ^ Baal Haturim Birashis 1:2
  4. ^ a b c Baal Haturim Birashis 1:1
  5. ^ Likutay Halachos, Hilchos Geniva 5
  6. ^ ikutay Halachos, Hilchos Tefillas Arvis 4:7
  7. ^ Chumash Shemos 12:2
  8. ^ Baal Haturim Birashis 1:7
  9. ^ a b c Rashi Berashis 1:4
  10. ^ Baal Haturim Birashis 1:4
  11. ^ a b Rashi Berashis 1:5
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Rashi Berashis 1:14
  13. ^ a b c d e f Rashi Berashis 1:6
  14. ^ a b c d Rashi Berashis 1:7
  15. ^ Rashi Berashis 1:8
  16. ^ a b Rashi Berashis 1:9
  17. ^ Rashi Berashis 1:10
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Rashi Berashis 1:11
  19. ^ Rashi Berashis 1:12
  20. ^ Baal Haturim Birashis 1:12
  21. ^ Rashi Berashis 1:15
  22. ^ Baal Haturim Birashis 1:14
  23. ^ a b c Rashi Berashis 1:16
  24. ^ a b c d Rashi Berashis 1:20
  25. ^ Baal Haturim Birashis 1:22
  26. ^ a b Rashi Berashis 1:21
  27. ^ a b c d Rashi Berashis 1:22
  28. ^ a b c Rashi Berashis 1:24
  29. ^ Rashi Berashis 1:25
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h Rashi Berashis 1:26
  31. ^ a b c d e Rashi Berashis 1:27
  32. ^ Baal Haturim Birashis 1:27
  33. ^ a b Baal Haturim Birashis 1:29
  34. ^ a b Rashi Berashis 1:28
  35. ^ Baal Haturim Berashis 1:28
  36. ^ a b c Rashi Berashis 1:30
  37. ^ Baal Haturim Berashis 1:31
  38. ^ Baal Haturim Berashis 6:1
  39. ^ Shover Zadim Parshas Berashis
  40. ^ a b c d e Tikunay Zohar Tikkun 64
  41. ^ Rashi Berashis 18:3
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